Various commonly usedalgorithms/analyses for ancestry inference are applied to dissect the ancestry composition and genetic affinity of an individual of interest.

Ancestry composition. To determine the global (genome-wide) ancestry composition of an individual based on ADMIXTURE analysis. A summary plot of genetic admixtureis provided. Each individual is represented by a single line broken into K colored segments, with lengths proportional to the K inferred components (Cs). The population IDs are presented outside of the circle of the plot.

Archaic ancestry. To estimate the archaic ancestry of an individual, in the current version, archaic ancestry mainly refers to that of Neanderthal and Denisovan.

Uniparental lineages.To determine the haplogroups of mtDNA and/or chromosome Y of an individual. A map is provided with a human migration route based on Y or mtDNAhaplogroupsto illuminate the possible genetic history of the individual studied.

Lineage-tracing. To determine the population-affiliation of an individual using the hierarchical clustering analysis of representative populations based on the nested AIMs panels. An additional principal component analysis is applied to further illuminate the relationship, on a fine-scale, between the target sample and the two most related populations.

Provincial affinity.To estimatethe genetic relationship of the sample with provincialpopulations, i.e., to determine the most likely provincial population from which the individual is.